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Version 8 er udarbejdet af en arbejdsgruppe nedsat af Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin samt Dansk Selskab for Gastroenterologi og Hepatologi
Medlemmer: Nina Weis (formand), Mette Rye Clausen, Peer Brehm Christensen, Henrik Krarup, Alex Lund Laursen, Lone Galmstrup Madsen
Forfattere: Jan Gerstoft, Nina Weis, Terese L. Katzenstein (Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin), Anders Nyboe Andersen og Jens Fedder (Dansk Fertilitetsselskab).
Anbefaling for profylakse og opfølgning af stikuheld og anden blodeksposition.
Revideret februar 2016. Arbejdsgruppen bestod af
Suzanne Lunding (formand), Peer Brehm Christensen, Christian Erikstrup, Terese L. Katzenstein, Henrik Krarup, Alex Lund Laursen, Birgitte Mørn og Nina Weis
Sundhedsstyrelsen har udarbejdet en fælles vejledning for forebyggelse af blodbåren smitte, diagnostik og håndtering af personer der har HIV eller hepatitis B og C. Vejledningen afspejler, at behandlingsmulighederne for disse sygdomme er væsentligt forbedrede.
Klik her for flere resultater
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the greatest public health burdens, particularly for people living with several barriers to access to health care services, such as the hill tribe adult population in Thailand. People aged 25 years and over who are out of the target population for HBV immunization under the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) are at risk of HBV infection. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and determine the factors associated with HBV infection among hill tribe adults aged 25 years and over living in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.
A cross-sectional study design was used to collect information on hill tribe adults aged 25 years and over living in 36 selected hill tribe villages in Chiang Rai Province. All people living in the selected villages who met the criteria were invited to participate in the study. A validated questionnaire and a 5-mL blood specimen were used as research instruments. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs), and antibody to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) were detected by using the Wondfo Test Kit@, which has high sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression was used to detect the associations between variables at the significance level of α = 0.05.
A total of 1491 individuals were recruited into the analysis; 60.8% were females, 81.3% were aged between 30 and 60 years, and 86.0% were married. The majority were illiterate (54.9%), were Buddhist (55.7%), worked in agricultural sectors (87.3%), and had an annual income of less than 50,000 baht per year (72.9%). The overall prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 26.6%; 7.6% were positive for HBsAg, 19.2% were positive for anti-HBs, and 18.9% were positive for anti-HBc. In the multivariate analysis, three variables were found to be associated with hepatitis B infection: those who were in the Yao and Lisu tribes had a 1.64-fold (95% CI = 1.08–2.49) and a 1.93-fold (95% CI = 1.10–3.31) greater chance, respectively, of HBV infection than did those in the Karen tribe; those who were Christian had a 1.41-fold (95% CI = 1.06–1.87) greater chance of HBV infection than did those who were Buddhist; and those who did not use alcohol had a 1.29-fold (95% CI = 1.01–1.65) greater chance of HBV infection than did those who used alcohol.
It is necessary to develop and implement effective public health interventions among hill tribe adult populations who are not part of the EPI-targeted population, particularly Christians, those in the Lisu and Yao tribes, and those who do not use alcohol, to reduce the HBV infection rate, save lives and reduce medical expenses.
Journal of Medical Virology, Accepted Article.
Hung I, Yap D, Yip T, et al.
AbstractBackgroundPatients on dialysis are hyporesponsive to the current hepatitis B virus vaccines (HBVv). We conducted a phase-2 trial examining four-doses of intradermal (ID) HBVv Sci-B-Vac™, with topical TLR7 agonist imiquimod pretreatment in dialysis patients.MethodsIn this double-blind, randomized-controlled trial, we enrolled and prospectively followed adult patients on dialysis between January 2016 and September 2018. Eligible patients were randomly allocated (1:1:1) into one treatment: topical imiquimod-cream followed by intradermal HBVv (IMQ_ID), and two control groups: topical aqueous-cream (placebo) followed by ID HBVv (AQ_ID) or topical aqueous-cream followed by intramuscular (IM) HBVv (AQ_IM). The primary end-point was the seroprotection rate (anti-HBs≥10mIU/mL) at 52 weeks after the first dose of HBVv.ResultsNinety-four patients on dialysis were enrolled, among which 57.4% were previous non-responders. The primary outcome of seroprotection rate was significantly better at week 52 for the treatment group (IMQ_ID) with 96.9% seroprotection rate, comparing compared to 74.2% and 48.4% for the AQ_ID and AQ_IM groups, respectively (p
Le A, Yang H, Yeh M, et al.
AbstractBackgroundChronic hepatitis B (CHB) can progress to cirrhosis, but there are limited noninvasive tools available to estimate cirrhosis risk, including in patients receiving antiviral therapy. This study developed/validated a simple model to assess risk in CHB patients.MethodsThe derivation cohort included 3,000 CHB patients from 6 centers in the US, with 52.60% receiving antiviral therapy. External validation was performed for 4,552 CHB individuals from similar cohorts in Taiwan, with 21.27% receiving therapy. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to screen predictors and develop the risk score for cirrhosis. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROCs) were calculated for predictive value.ResultsSex, age, diabetes, antiviral treatment status/duration, hepatitis B e-antigen, and baseline alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly associated with increased cirrhosis risk. A 13-point risk score was developed based on these predictors. The AUROCs for predicting cirrhosis risk were 0.82 at 3 years, 0.85 at 5 years, and 0.89 at 10 years in the derivation cohort, and 0.82, 0.79, and 0.77 in the validation cohort, respectively.Conclusions: We developed/validated a simple cirrhosis prediction model with an independent external cohort that can be applied to both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced CHB patients in diverse settings and locations.
Cruz S. Sebastião,
Takeuchi Y, Tsuge M, Tsushima K, et al.
AbstractBackgroundHBx associates with hepatocellular carcinogenesis via the induction of malignant transformation and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the association between HBx and histone methyltransferase in carcinogenesis has not been fully clarified. In this study, we analyzed the association between HBx and the histone methyltransferase SUV39h1 using HBV replication models.MethodsWe constructed several HBx and SUV39h1 expression plasmids and analyzed the association between HBx and SUV39h1 with respect to hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and hepatocarcinogenesis.ResultsSUV39h1 upregulation was observed in HBV-infected humanized mouse livers and clinical HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, indicating that SUV39h1 expression might be regulated by HBV infection. Through in vitro analysis, we determined that the co-activator domain of HBx interacts with the PSET and SET domains of SUV39h1. The expression levels of four genes, ATF6, AFP, GADD45a, and DUSP1, known to induce carcinogenesis via HBx expression, were upregulated by HBx and further upregulated in the presence of both HBx and SUV39h1. Furthermore, histone methyltransferase activity, the main function of SUV39h1, was enhanced in the presence of HBx.ConclusionsWe demonstrated that SUV39h1 and HBx enhance each other’s activity, leading to HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. We propose that regulation of this interaction could help to suppress development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Anugwom C, Aby E, Debes J.
Sabah A.E. Ibrahim, Sofia B. Mohamed, Sumaya Kambal, Aya Diya-Aldeen, Sara Ahmed, Batool Faisal, Fatima Ismail, Amel Ibrahim, Amel Sabawe, Osama Mohamed
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a virus species belonging to Hepadnaviridae family which is partial double-stranded DNA viruses (Pourkarim et al., 2014). This virus affects nearly 2 billion people around the world (Wang et al., 2019) and it has been reported as one of the two major causing and risk factors (the second is Hepatitis C Virus) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the Sudan (Abou et al., 2009). Several studies have characterized HBV as extremely endemic in Sudan as the hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg was reported to have a prevalence of approximately 16%-20% in the Sudanese population rate (Elduma and Saeed, 2011).
Xuli Bao, Jia Guo, Fang Xiong, Yachao Qu, Yao Gao, Na Gu, Jun Lu
Zhong Hua Zhao,
Xiao Qin Lv,
Yu Wei Tang,
Hua Tang Zhang,
Guo Qi Lai
Eduardo Delabio Auer, Hoang van Tong, Leonardo Maldaner Amorim, Danielle Malheiros, Nghiem Xuan Hoan, Hellen Caroline Issler, Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler, Márcia Holsbach Beltrame, Angelica Beate Winter Boldt, Nguyen Linh Toan, Le Huu Song, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan, Danillo G. Augusto
Magda Rybicka, Anna Woziwodzka, Alicja Sznarkowska, Tomasz Romanowski, Piotr Stalke, Marcin Dręczewski, Eloi R. Verrier, Thomas F. Baumert, Krzysztof Piotr Bielawski
Abraham O. Malu, Godwin I. Achinge, Priscilla M. Utoo, Jonathan T. Kur and Solomon A. Obekpa
There have been various estimates of the prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections in Nigeria. Recent studies have shown the prevalence to be lower than previously reported. The different populations studied might be responsible for this. It is important to have a real population data that would inform the policies to be adopted for eradication. We set out to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and pattern of hepatitis B and C in Benue State, Central Nigeria. Four thousand and five (4,005) subjects, aged 1 year and older, were selected through a multistage random sampling to represent all parts of the state. Trained health workers administered a validated questionnaire. Rapid test kits were standardized and used in determining the prevalence of the respective viruses. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were found to be positive in 5% and 1%, respectively, of subjects screened. The prevalence varied from one local government area to another, with HBsAg being 8% in the highest to 2% in the lowest LGC, and anti-HCV being 3% in the highest and 0% in the lowest. Age, previous close contact with a patient, and multiple sex partners were the most important risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, whereas age and previous blood transfusion were the most important risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HBV immunization may be having an impact in reducing the prevalence of the virus. Nigeria appears to be moving from high endemicity to the intermediate one.
Ge Li, Gongchen Wang, Fang-Chi Hsu, Jianzhao Xu, Xia Pei, Bo Zhao and Avinash Shetty
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in China. We evaluated the impact of psychosocial factors (stigma, disclosure, depression, and anxiety) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with chronic HBV infection (CHB) in the city of Dalian, Liaoning Province, China. In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, 401 patients living with chronic HBV infection were enrolled as study participants. Study measures included the Beck depression and anxiety inventory, the WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) assessment, the Toronto Chinese HBV Stigma Scale, and disclosure of HBV status to sexual partners. The primary outcome was HRQoL score as measured by the WHOQOL-BREF. A linear regression model was used to examine the association between HRQoL and the potential risk factors including stigma, disclosure, depression, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables. Stigma, disclosure, depression, and anxiety were the covariates of interest. A majority of the participants were females (n = 251, 65.6%), married (81.6%), and had a college or higher degree (32.4%). Depression, anxiety, stigma, and disclosure of HBV infection were associated with low HRQoL in all four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF (physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains) (P < 0.05), when all psychological factors were included in the model separately. Depression was found to be independently associated with low HRQoL in people living with HBV, when all psychological factors were included in the model simultaneously (P < 0.0001). Our data indicate the urgent need for healthcare providers (HCPs) and policy-makers to implement psychological interventions to improve HRQoL among people living with CHB.
Bienvenu Lengo Nsakala,
Thabo Ishmael Lejone,
Michael André Hobbins,
Niklaus Daniel Labhardt
Patrick T. Kennedy
Journal of Medical Virology, EarlyView.
Özgür M Koc,
Ger H Koek,
This study aimed to detect Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome sequences and their variants as of nationwide scale using dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to provide up-to-date reference data for infection control and surveillance in Cambodia.
Among 2518 children age 5–7 years and their 2023 mothers participated in 2017 Cambodia nationwide sero-survey on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence using multistage random sampling strategy, 95 mothers and 13 children positive to HBsAg were included in this study. HBV DNA was extracted from DBS, then performed polymerase chain reaction. HBV genotypes and potential variants were examined by partial and full length genomic analysis.
HBsAg positive rate was 4.7% (95/2023) in mothers and 0.52% (13/2518) in their children. Genotype C (80.49%) was abundantly found throughout the whole Cambodia whilst genotype B (19.51%) was exclusively found in regions bordering Vietnam. S gene mutants of HBV were found in 24.29% of mothers and 16.67% of children with HBV DNA positive sera. Full-length genome analysis revealed the homology of 99.62–100% in each mother-child pair. Genotype B was clarified to recombinant genotype B4/C2 and B2/C2. Double (48.39%) and combination mutation (32.26%) were observed in core promoter region of HBV C1 strains.
This study showed the capable of DBS for large-scale molecular epidemiological study of HBV in resource limited countries. Full-genome sequences yield the better understanding of sub-genotypes, their variants and the degree of homology between strains isolated from mother-child pairs calls for effective strategies on prevention, control and surveillance of mother-to-child HBV transmission in Cambodia.
A major hurdle in the long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is to maintain viral suppression in the absence of drug resistance. To date, no evidence of resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been observed. A cumulative evaluation of CHB patients who qualified for resistance surveillance over 8 years of TDF treatment was conducted. Patients in studies GS-US-174-0102 (HBeAg-) and GS-US-174-0103 (HBeAg+) were randomized 2:1 to receive TDF or adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for 48 weeks followed by open-label TDF through year 8. Population sequencing of HBV pol/RT was attempted for all TDF-treated patients at baseline and, annually if viremic, at discontinuation, or with addition of emtricitabine. Overall, 88/641 (13.7%) patients qualified for sequence analysis at one or more time points. The percentage of patients qualifying for sequence analysis declined over time, from 9 to 11% in years 1-2 to <4% over years 3-8. Forty-one episodes of virologic breakthrough (VB) occurred throughout the study, with most (n=29, 70%) associated with nonadherence to study medication. Fifty-nine per cent of VB patients with an opportunity to resuppress HBV achieved HBV DNA resuppression. A minority of patients who qualified for sequencing had polymorphic (41/165, 24.8%) or conserved (17/165, 10.3%) site changes in pol/RT, with six patients developing lamivudine and/or ADV resistance-associated mutations. No accumulation of conserved site changes was detected. The long-term treatment of CHB with TDF monotherapy maintains effective suppression of HBV DNA through 8 years, with no evidence of TDF resistance or accumulation of conserved site changes.
In phase 2 trials, treatment with the combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3.
A simple treatment regimen that is effective in a broad range of patients who are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet medical need.
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations. Patients with HCV may develop mixed cryoglobulinemia and its sequelae, ranging from cutaneous and visceral vasculitis to glomerulonephritis and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. HCV-infected patients have increased rates of insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, which may lead to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Neurological manifestations of HCV infection include fatigue and cognitive impairment. The mechanisms causing the extrahepatic effects of HCV infection are likely multifactorial and may include endocrine effects, HCV replication in extrahepatic cells, or a heightened immune reaction with systemic effects. Successful eradication of HCV with interferon alfa and ribavirin was shown to improve some of these extrahepatic effects; sustained virological response is associated with resolution of complications of cryoglobulinemia, reduced levels of insulin resistance, reduced incidence of diabetes and stroke, and improved fatigue and cognitive functioning. The availability of new interferon-free, well-tolerated anti-HCV treatment regimens is broadening the spectrum of patients available for therapy, including those in whom interferon was contraindicated, and will likely result in greater improvements in the extrahepatic manifestations of HCV. If these regimens are shown to confer significant benefit in the metabolic, cardiovascular, or neuropsychiatric conditions associated with HCV infection, extrahepatic manifestations of HCV may become a major indication for treatment even in the absence of liver disease.
Worldwide, although predominantly in low-income countries in the Middle East and Africa, up to 13% of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are caused by HCV genotype 4. For patients with HCV genotype 1, the combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir has been shown to cure high proportions of patients with excellent tolerability, but this regimen has not been assessed for the treatment of HCV genotype 4. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 12 weeks of combination therapy with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infections.
Novel interferon- and ribavirin-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
The Phase-2 C-SALVAGE study evaluated an investigational interferon-free combination of grazoprevir (a NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (a NS5A inhibitor) with ribavirin for patients with chronic HCV genotype-1 infection who had failed licensed DAA-containing therapy.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 accounts for about 13% of global HCV infections. Because interferon-containing treatments for genotype 4 infection have low efficacy and poor tolerability, an unmet need exists for effective all-oral regimens. We examined the efficacy and safety of an all-oral interferon-free regimen of ombitasvir, an NS5A inhibitor, and paritaprevir (ABT-450), an NS3/4A protease inhibitor dosed with ritonavir (ombitasvir plus paritaprevir plus ritonavir), given with or without ribavirin.
Patients with cirrhosis resulting from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at risk of life-threatening complications, but consistently achieve lower sustained virological response (SVR) than patients without cirrhosis, especially if treatment has previously failed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, with and without ribavirin.
Interferon-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We investigated the efficacy of combined simeprevir and sofosbuvir.
Effective treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in patients who have not had a sustained virologic response to prior interferon-based therapy represents an unmet medical need.
In this phase 3 trial we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the interferon-free combination of ABT-450 with ritonavir (ABT-450/r), ombitasvir (also known as ABT-267), dasabuvir (also known as ABT-333), and ribavirin for the retreatment of HCV in patients who were previously treated with peginterferon-ribavirin.
No data are available about the prediction of long-term survival using repeated noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to assess the prognostic value of 3-year liver stiffness measurement (LSM), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) evolution in CHC. CHC patients with two LSM (1,000-1,500 days interval) were prospectively included. Blood fibrosis tests APRI and FIB-4 were calculated the day of baseline (bLSM) and follow-up (fLSM) LSM. Evolution of fibrosis tests was expressed as delta: (follow-up-baseline results)/duration. Date and cause of death were recorded during follow-up that started the day of fLSM. In all, 1,025 patients were included. Median follow-up after fLSM was 38.0 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 27.7-46.1) during which 35 patients died (14 liver-related death) and seven had liver transplantation. Prognostic accuracy (Harrell C-index) of multivariate models including baseline and delta results was not significantly different between LSM and FIB-4 (P ≥ 0.24), whereas FIB-4 provided more accurate prognostic models than APRI (P = 0.03). By multivariate analysis including LSM variables, overall survival was independently predicted by bLSM, delta (dLSM), and sustained virological response (SVR). Prognosis was excellent in patients having bLSM <7 kPa, SVR, or no increase (<1 kPa/year) in 7-14 kPa bLSM. Prognosis was significantly impaired in patients with an increase (≥ 1 kPa/year) in 7-14 kPa bLSM, or decrease (≤ 0 kPa/year) in ≥ 14 kPa bLSM (P = 0.949 between these two groups). Patients with an increase (>0 kPa/year) in ≥ 14 kPa bLSM had the worst prognosis. Baseline and delta FIB-4 also identified patient subgroups with significantly different prognosis.
All-oral combination therapy is desirable for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We evaluated daclatasvir (an HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir (a nucleotide analogue HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor) in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3.
Early treatment of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with interferon alfa monotherapy is very effective, with cure rates of greater than 85%. However, spontaneous clearance of HCV occurs in 10-50% of cases. We aimed to assess an alternative treatment strategy of delayed antiviral therapy in patients who do not eliminate the virus spontaneously compared with immediate treatment.
Earlier studies have suggested neurocognitive impairment in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection even before liver cirrhosis has developed. Since these deficits might be reversible after successful antiviral therapy, we analyzed the long-term course of neurocognitive parameters in HCV patients with and without successful virus elimination by an interferon-based antiviral treatment. In a multicenter study including 168 HCV patients receiving antiviral therapy (peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin) we performed a long-term follow-up of neurocognitive performance before and after treatment. Neurocognitive function was psychometrically assessed using the computer-aided TAP (Test Battery of Attentional Performance). When tested at least 12 months after termination of antiviral treatment, patients with sustained virologic response (SVR) had improved significantly as compared to their pretreatment performance in three of five TAP subtasks (vigilance, P < 0.001; shared attention: optical task, P < 0.001; working memory, P < 0.001). Patients who failed to eradicate the virus, however, showed no significant long-term changes in neurocognitive performance in all five subtasks assessed (0.194 < P < 0.804). In the posttreatment evaluation, neurocognitive function was significantly better in responders to the antiviral therapy as compared to nonresponders.
A national survey for chronic hepatitis C has not been performed in Denmark and the prevalence is unknown. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C from public registers and the proportion of these patients who received specialized healthcare.
Since 2000 outbreaks of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who denied injecting drug use have been reported from Europe, the United States, Canada and Australia. Given the burden of liver disease, in particular HCV, on the morbidity and mortality in HIV patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, the rapid and significant rise in the incidence of HCV in the HIV-infected MSM population in high-income countries is alarming. This relates to a significant change in the epidemiology of HCV that has occurred, with HCV emerging as a sexually transmitted infection within this population. Work to date suggests that this permucosal HCV transmission results from high-risk sexual and noninjecting drug use behaviours, reopening the discussion on the importance of sexual transmission. Given this occurs almost exclusively in HIV-infected MSM, HIV probably has a critical role mediated either through behavioural and/or biological factors. Finally, the management of acute HCV in HIV infection is complicated by concomitant HIV infection and combination antiretroviral therapy. This review will synthesize the most recent epidemiological, immunological and management issues that have emerged as a result of the epidemic of acute HCV among HIV-infected MSM.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a nucleotide analogue and a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase.
The diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have witnessed major changes over the past decade. Until the early 1990s, HCC was a relatively rare malignancy, typically diagnosed at an advanced stage in a symptomatic patient, and there were no known effective palliative or therapeutic options. However, the rising incidence of HCC in several regions around the world coupled with emerging evidence for efficacy of screening in high-risk patients, liver transplantation as a curative option in select patients, ability to make definitive diagnosis using high-resolution imaging of the liver, less dependency on obtaining tissue diagnosis, and proven efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization and sorafenib as palliative therapy have improved the outlook for HCC patients. In this article, we present a summary of the most recent information on screening, diagnosis, staging, and different treatment modalities of HCC, as well as our recommended management approach.
Entecavir, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, is not believed to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at clinically relevant doses. We observed that entecavir led to a consistent 1-log(10) decrease in HIV-1 RNA in three persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection, and we obtained supportive in vitro evidence that entecavir is a potent partial inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. Detailed analysis showed that in one of these patients, entecavir monotherapy led to an accumulation of HIV-1 variants with the lamivudine-resistant mutation, M184V. In vitro experiments showed that M184V confers resistance to entecavir. Until more is known about HIV-1-resistance patterns and their selection by entecavir, caution is needed with the use of entecavir in persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection who are not receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral regimens.
Entecavir is a potent and selective guanosine analogue with significant activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV).
The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has never been studied according to the concept of liver fibrosis progression. The aim of this work was to assess the fibrosis progression rate in HIV-HCV coinfected patients and in patients infected by HCV only. A cohort of 122 HIV-HCV coinfected patients was compared with a control group of 122 HIV-negative HCV-infected patients. Groups were matched according to age, sex, daily alcohol consumption, age at HCV infection, and duration and route of HCV infection. The fibrosis progression rate was defined as the ratio between fibrosis stage (METAVIR scoring system) and the HCV duration. The prevalence of extensive liver fibrosis (METAVIR fibrosis scores 2, 3, and 4) and moderate or severe activity were higher in HIV-infected patients (60% and 54%, respectively) than in control patients (47% and 30%, respectively; P <.05 and P <.001, respectively). The median fibrosis progression rate in coinfected patients and in control patients was 0.153 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.117-0.181) and 0.106 (95% CI, 0.084-0.125) fibrosis units per year, respectively (P <.0001). HIV seropositivity (P <.0001), alcohol consumption (>50 g/d, P =.0002), age at HCV infection (<25 years old, P <.0001), and severe immunosuppression (CD4 count =200 cells/microL, P <.0001) were associated with an increase in the fibrosis progression rate. In coinfected patients, alcohol consumption (>50 g/d), CD4 count (=200 cells/microL), and age at HCV infection (<25 years old) (P <. 0001, respectively) were associated with a higher fibrosis progression rate. HIV seropositivity accelerates HCV-related liver fibrosis progression. In coinfected patients, a low CD4 count, alcohol consumption rate, and age at HCV infection are associated with a higher liver fibrosis progression rate.
Our aim was to assess the natural history of liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C and the factors associated with this progression.
Few data are available concerning the long-term prognosis of chronic liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection. This study examined the morbidity and survival of patients with compensated cirrhosis type C.
We measured antibody (anti-HCV) to hepatitis C virus, which causes non-A, non-B hepatitis, by radioimmunoassay in prospectively followed transfusion recipients and their donors. Of 15 patients with chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis documented by liver biopsy, all seroconverted for the antibody; of 5 with acute resolving non-A, non-B hepatitis, 3 (60 percent) seroconverted. The development of anti-HCV was delayed (mean delay, 21.9 weeks after transfusion, or 15 weeks after the onset of clinical hepatitis) and took approximately one year in one patient. Antibody has persisted in 14 of the 15 patients with chronic disease (mean follow-up, greater than or equal to 6.9 years; maximum, greater than or equal to 12), but has disappeared in the 3 with acute resolving disease after a mean of 4.1 years. Anti-HCV was detected in samples of donor serum given to 14 (88 percent) of the 16 anti-HCV-positive patients for whom all donor samples were available. Only 33 percent of the anti-HCV-positive donors tested had an elevated serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase; 54 percent were positive for antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). We conclude that hepatitis C virus is the predominant agent of transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis and that screening of donors for anti-HCV could prevent the majority of cases of the disease. "Surrogate" assays for anti-HBc and alanine aminotransferase would have detected approximately half the anti-HCV-positive donors involved in the transmission of hepatitis that we identified.
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
27.08.2020 - 29.08.2020
World Sepsis Day
Det 8. videnskabelige nationale møde om infektiøs endokarditis
International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria (ICTMM) 2020
20.09.2020 - 24.09.2020
Meeting of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) 2020
14.10.2020 - 17.10.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Infections in Patients Colonized with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacterales – a Retrospective Cohort Study
30.07.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Effectiveness of Cloth Masks for Protection Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
22.07.2020Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
Coronavirus Disease among Persons with Sickle Cell Disease, United States, March 20–May 21, 2020
22.07.2020Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
COVID-19: the worst may be yet to come
First step in a new era for treatment of patients with vitiligo
Hvorfor synes Professor Jens Lundgren, at du bør læse"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvad mener Professor Troels Lillebæk om artiklen"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad synes Professor Lars Østergaard om"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Niels Obel artiklen"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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