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Version 8 er udarbejdet af en arbejdsgruppe nedsat af Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin samt Dansk Selskab for Gastroenterologi og Hepatologi
Medlemmer: Nina Weis (formand), Mette Rye Clausen, Peer Brehm Christensen, Henrik Krarup, Alex Lund Laursen, Lone Galmstrup Madsen
Forfattere: Jan Gerstoft, Nina Weis, Terese L. Katzenstein (Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin), Anders Nyboe Andersen og Jens Fedder (Dansk Fertilitetsselskab).
Anbefaling for profylakse og opfølgning af stikuheld og anden blodeksposition.
Revideret februar 2016. Arbejdsgruppen bestod af
Suzanne Lunding (formand), Peer Brehm Christensen, Christian Erikstrup, Terese L. Katzenstein, Henrik Krarup, Alex Lund Laursen, Birgitte Mørn og Nina Weis
Sundhedsstyrelsen har udarbejdet en fælles vejledning for forebyggelse af blodbåren smitte, diagnostik og håndtering af personer der har HIV eller hepatitis B og C. Vejledningen afspejler, at behandlingsmulighederne for disse sygdomme er væsentligt forbedrede.
EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines
Medicin.dk om behandling af hepatitis B
Medicin.dk om behandling af hepatitis C
Medicinrådets lægemiddelrekommandation for behandling af kronisk hepatitis C infektion
Dansk standard for rapportering af kronisk hepatitis B og C
A major hurdle in the long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is to maintain viral suppression in the absence of drug resistance. To date, no evidence of resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been observed. A cumulative evaluation of CHB patients who qualified for resistance surveillance over 8 years of TDF treatment was conducted. Patients in studies GS-US-174-0102 (HBeAg-) and GS-US-174-0103 (HBeAg+) were randomized 2:1 to receive TDF or adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for 48 weeks followed by open-label TDF through year 8. Population sequencing of HBV pol/RT was attempted for all TDF-treated patients at baseline and, annually if viremic, at discontinuation, or with addition of emtricitabine. Overall, 88/641 (13.7%) patients qualified for sequence analysis at one or more time points. The percentage of patients qualifying for sequence analysis declined over time, from 9 to 11% in years 1-2 to <4% over years 3-8. Forty-one episodes of virologic breakthrough (VB) occurred throughout the study, with most (n=29, 70%) associated with nonadherence to study medication. Fifty-nine per cent of VB patients with an opportunity to resuppress HBV achieved HBV DNA resuppression. A minority of patients who qualified for sequencing had polymorphic (41/165, 24.8%) or conserved (17/165, 10.3%) site changes in pol/RT, with six patients developing lamivudine and/or ADV resistance-associated mutations. No accumulation of conserved site changes was detected. The long-term treatment of CHB with TDF monotherapy maintains effective suppression of HBV DNA through 8 years, with no evidence of TDF resistance or accumulation of conserved site changes.
In phase 2 trials, treatment with the combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3.
A simple treatment regimen that is effective in a broad range of patients who are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet medical need.
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations. Patients with HCV may develop mixed cryoglobulinemia and its sequelae, ranging from cutaneous and visceral vasculitis to glomerulonephritis and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. HCV-infected patients have increased rates of insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, which may lead to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Neurological manifestations of HCV infection include fatigue and cognitive impairment. The mechanisms causing the extrahepatic effects of HCV infection are likely multifactorial and may include endocrine effects, HCV replication in extrahepatic cells, or a heightened immune reaction with systemic effects. Successful eradication of HCV with interferon alfa and ribavirin was shown to improve some of these extrahepatic effects; sustained virological response is associated with resolution of complications of cryoglobulinemia, reduced levels of insulin resistance, reduced incidence of diabetes and stroke, and improved fatigue and cognitive functioning. The availability of new interferon-free, well-tolerated anti-HCV treatment regimens is broadening the spectrum of patients available for therapy, including those in whom interferon was contraindicated, and will likely result in greater improvements in the extrahepatic manifestations of HCV. If these regimens are shown to confer significant benefit in the metabolic, cardiovascular, or neuropsychiatric conditions associated with HCV infection, extrahepatic manifestations of HCV may become a major indication for treatment even in the absence of liver disease.
Worldwide, although predominantly in low-income countries in the Middle East and Africa, up to 13% of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are caused by HCV genotype 4. For patients with HCV genotype 1, the combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir has been shown to cure high proportions of patients with excellent tolerability, but this regimen has not been assessed for the treatment of HCV genotype 4. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 12 weeks of combination therapy with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infections.
Novel interferon- and ribavirin-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
The Phase-2 C-SALVAGE study evaluated an investigational interferon-free combination of grazoprevir (a NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (a NS5A inhibitor) with ribavirin for patients with chronic HCV genotype-1 infection who had failed licensed DAA-containing therapy.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 accounts for about 13% of global HCV infections. Because interferon-containing treatments for genotype 4 infection have low efficacy and poor tolerability, an unmet need exists for effective all-oral regimens. We examined the efficacy and safety of an all-oral interferon-free regimen of ombitasvir, an NS5A inhibitor, and paritaprevir (ABT-450), an NS3/4A protease inhibitor dosed with ritonavir (ombitasvir plus paritaprevir plus ritonavir), given with or without ribavirin.
Patients with cirrhosis resulting from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at risk of life-threatening complications, but consistently achieve lower sustained virological response (SVR) than patients without cirrhosis, especially if treatment has previously failed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, with and without ribavirin.
Interferon-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We investigated the efficacy of combined simeprevir and sofosbuvir.
Effective treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in patients who have not had a sustained virologic response to prior interferon-based therapy represents an unmet medical need.
In this phase 3 trial we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the interferon-free combination of ABT-450 with ritonavir (ABT-450/r), ombitasvir (also known as ABT-267), dasabuvir (also known as ABT-333), and ribavirin for the retreatment of HCV in patients who were previously treated with peginterferon-ribavirin.
No data are available about the prediction of long-term survival using repeated noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to assess the prognostic value of 3-year liver stiffness measurement (LSM), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) evolution in CHC. CHC patients with two LSM (1,000-1,500 days interval) were prospectively included. Blood fibrosis tests APRI and FIB-4 were calculated the day of baseline (bLSM) and follow-up (fLSM) LSM. Evolution of fibrosis tests was expressed as delta: (follow-up-baseline results)/duration. Date and cause of death were recorded during follow-up that started the day of fLSM. In all, 1,025 patients were included. Median follow-up after fLSM was 38.0 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 27.7-46.1) during which 35 patients died (14 liver-related death) and seven had liver transplantation. Prognostic accuracy (Harrell C-index) of multivariate models including baseline and delta results was not significantly different between LSM and FIB-4 (P ≥ 0.24), whereas FIB-4 provided more accurate prognostic models than APRI (P = 0.03). By multivariate analysis including LSM variables, overall survival was independently predicted by bLSM, delta (dLSM), and sustained virological response (SVR). Prognosis was excellent in patients having bLSM <7 kPa, SVR, or no increase (<1 kPa/year) in 7-14 kPa bLSM. Prognosis was significantly impaired in patients with an increase (≥ 1 kPa/year) in 7-14 kPa bLSM, or decrease (≤ 0 kPa/year) in ≥ 14 kPa bLSM (P = 0.949 between these two groups). Patients with an increase (>0 kPa/year) in ≥ 14 kPa bLSM had the worst prognosis. Baseline and delta FIB-4 also identified patient subgroups with significantly different prognosis.
All-oral combination therapy is desirable for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We evaluated daclatasvir (an HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir (a nucleotide analogue HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor) in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3.
Early treatment of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with interferon alfa monotherapy is very effective, with cure rates of greater than 85%. However, spontaneous clearance of HCV occurs in 10-50% of cases. We aimed to assess an alternative treatment strategy of delayed antiviral therapy in patients who do not eliminate the virus spontaneously compared with immediate treatment.
Earlier studies have suggested neurocognitive impairment in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection even before liver cirrhosis has developed. Since these deficits might be reversible after successful antiviral therapy, we analyzed the long-term course of neurocognitive parameters in HCV patients with and without successful virus elimination by an interferon-based antiviral treatment. In a multicenter study including 168 HCV patients receiving antiviral therapy (peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin) we performed a long-term follow-up of neurocognitive performance before and after treatment. Neurocognitive function was psychometrically assessed using the computer-aided TAP (Test Battery of Attentional Performance). When tested at least 12 months after termination of antiviral treatment, patients with sustained virologic response (SVR) had improved significantly as compared to their pretreatment performance in three of five TAP subtasks (vigilance, P < 0.001; shared attention: optical task, P < 0.001; working memory, P < 0.001). Patients who failed to eradicate the virus, however, showed no significant long-term changes in neurocognitive performance in all five subtasks assessed (0.194 < P < 0.804). In the posttreatment evaluation, neurocognitive function was significantly better in responders to the antiviral therapy as compared to nonresponders.
A national survey for chronic hepatitis C has not been performed in Denmark and the prevalence is unknown. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C from public registers and the proportion of these patients who received specialized healthcare.
Since 2000 outbreaks of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who denied injecting drug use have been reported from Europe, the United States, Canada and Australia. Given the burden of liver disease, in particular HCV, on the morbidity and mortality in HIV patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, the rapid and significant rise in the incidence of HCV in the HIV-infected MSM population in high-income countries is alarming. This relates to a significant change in the epidemiology of HCV that has occurred, with HCV emerging as a sexually transmitted infection within this population. Work to date suggests that this permucosal HCV transmission results from high-risk sexual and noninjecting drug use behaviours, reopening the discussion on the importance of sexual transmission. Given this occurs almost exclusively in HIV-infected MSM, HIV probably has a critical role mediated either through behavioural and/or biological factors. Finally, the management of acute HCV in HIV infection is complicated by concomitant HIV infection and combination antiretroviral therapy. This review will synthesize the most recent epidemiological, immunological and management issues that have emerged as a result of the epidemic of acute HCV among HIV-infected MSM.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a nucleotide analogue and a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase.
The diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have witnessed major changes over the past decade. Until the early 1990s, HCC was a relatively rare malignancy, typically diagnosed at an advanced stage in a symptomatic patient, and there were no known effective palliative or therapeutic options. However, the rising incidence of HCC in several regions around the world coupled with emerging evidence for efficacy of screening in high-risk patients, liver transplantation as a curative option in select patients, ability to make definitive diagnosis using high-resolution imaging of the liver, less dependency on obtaining tissue diagnosis, and proven efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization and sorafenib as palliative therapy have improved the outlook for HCC patients. In this article, we present a summary of the most recent information on screening, diagnosis, staging, and different treatment modalities of HCC, as well as our recommended management approach.
Entecavir, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, is not believed to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at clinically relevant doses. We observed that entecavir led to a consistent 1-log(10) decrease in HIV-1 RNA in three persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection, and we obtained supportive in vitro evidence that entecavir is a potent partial inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. Detailed analysis showed that in one of these patients, entecavir monotherapy led to an accumulation of HIV-1 variants with the lamivudine-resistant mutation, M184V. In vitro experiments showed that M184V confers resistance to entecavir. Until more is known about HIV-1-resistance patterns and their selection by entecavir, caution is needed with the use of entecavir in persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection who are not receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral regimens.
Entecavir is a potent and selective guanosine analogue with significant activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV).
The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has never been studied according to the concept of liver fibrosis progression. The aim of this work was to assess the fibrosis progression rate in HIV-HCV coinfected patients and in patients infected by HCV only. A cohort of 122 HIV-HCV coinfected patients was compared with a control group of 122 HIV-negative HCV-infected patients. Groups were matched according to age, sex, daily alcohol consumption, age at HCV infection, and duration and route of HCV infection. The fibrosis progression rate was defined as the ratio between fibrosis stage (METAVIR scoring system) and the HCV duration. The prevalence of extensive liver fibrosis (METAVIR fibrosis scores 2, 3, and 4) and moderate or severe activity were higher in HIV-infected patients (60% and 54%, respectively) than in control patients (47% and 30%, respectively; P <.05 and P <.001, respectively). The median fibrosis progression rate in coinfected patients and in control patients was 0.153 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.117-0.181) and 0.106 (95% CI, 0.084-0.125) fibrosis units per year, respectively (P <.0001). HIV seropositivity (P <.0001), alcohol consumption (>50 g/d, P =.0002), age at HCV infection (<25 years old, P <.0001), and severe immunosuppression (CD4 count =200 cells/microL, P <.0001) were associated with an increase in the fibrosis progression rate. In coinfected patients, alcohol consumption (>50 g/d), CD4 count (=200 cells/microL), and age at HCV infection (<25 years old) (P <. 0001, respectively) were associated with a higher fibrosis progression rate. HIV seropositivity accelerates HCV-related liver fibrosis progression. In coinfected patients, a low CD4 count, alcohol consumption rate, and age at HCV infection are associated with a higher liver fibrosis progression rate.
Our aim was to assess the natural history of liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C and the factors associated with this progression.
Few data are available concerning the long-term prognosis of chronic liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection. This study examined the morbidity and survival of patients with compensated cirrhosis type C.
We measured antibody (anti-HCV) to hepatitis C virus, which causes non-A, non-B hepatitis, by radioimmunoassay in prospectively followed transfusion recipients and their donors. Of 15 patients with chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis documented by liver biopsy, all seroconverted for the antibody; of 5 with acute resolving non-A, non-B hepatitis, 3 (60 percent) seroconverted. The development of anti-HCV was delayed (mean delay, 21.9 weeks after transfusion, or 15 weeks after the onset of clinical hepatitis) and took approximately one year in one patient. Antibody has persisted in 14 of the 15 patients with chronic disease (mean follow-up, greater than or equal to 6.9 years; maximum, greater than or equal to 12), but has disappeared in the 3 with acute resolving disease after a mean of 4.1 years. Anti-HCV was detected in samples of donor serum given to 14 (88 percent) of the 16 anti-HCV-positive patients for whom all donor samples were available. Only 33 percent of the anti-HCV-positive donors tested had an elevated serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase; 54 percent were positive for antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). We conclude that hepatitis C virus is the predominant agent of transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis and that screening of donors for anti-HCV could prevent the majority of cases of the disease. "Surrogate" assays for anti-HBc and alanine aminotransferase would have detected approximately half the anti-HCV-positive donors involved in the transmission of hepatitis that we identified.
Klik her for flere resultater
The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the value of real-time ultrasound elastography (RTE) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis (LF) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), to correlate the elastography findings with the histologic stage of LF and to compare RTE findings with those from noninvasive tests of LF calculated using laboratory blood parameters.
Liver biopsies, laboratory blood testing, and RTE were performed in 91 patients with CHB. The LF index (LFI) was calculated using a multiple linear regression equation involving 11 parameters, which represented the degree of LF. The higher the LFI is, the greater the degree of LF.
The mean aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and the mean fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4) were significantly different for the 5 stages of LF, respectively. The APRI (r = 0.43, P = 0.006), FIB-4 (r = 0.51, P = 0.012) and LFI (r = 0.562, P = 0.004) were correlated with the stages of LF. For discriminating stage F0 from F1, only the LFI had significant power (P = 0.026) for predicting stage F1. For discriminating stage F4 from F3, only the LFI had statistically significant power (P = 0.024) in predicting stage F4. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of the LFI for diagnosing significant, advanced LF and liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than those of the APRI and FIB-4, and the LFI had better sensitivity and specificity.
The LFI calculated by RTE is reliable for the assessment of LF in patients with CHB and has better discrimination power than the APRI and FIB-4.
Zhao, N., Jia, B., Zhao, H., Xu, J., Sheng, X., Luo, L., Huang, Z., Wang, X., Ren, Q., Zhang, Y., Zhao, X., Cui, Y.
GLS4 is a novel inhibitor of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly with inhibitory activities against nucleot(s)ide-resistant HBV strains. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of GLS4 and the effects of food and ritonavir in healthy adults. GLS4 was administered in a single-ascending-dose study over 1-240 mg and multiple-ascending-dose study that ranged from 30 mg once daily to 180 mg thrice daily. The drug interaction study included sequential-design (day 1 for 120 mg GLS4 alone, day 5 for 100 mg ritonavir alone followed by 9 days of both drugs) and a placebo-control (9 days of both 240 mg GLS4 and 100 mg ritonavir). The results showed that the steady-state trough concentration of multiple dosing of GLS4 alone was significantly lower than the 90% effective concentration (EC90) of 55.7 ng/ml, even with increasing dosing frequency and dosage. An initial dose of 100 mg ritonavir significantly boosted plasma concentration at 24 h of 120 mg GLS4 from 2.40 ng/ml to 49.8 ng/ml (geometric mean ratio of 20.7, 90% confidence interval 17.0-25.3), while a milder effect was observed on the area under the curve (AUC)0-24h with a 7.42-fold increase and on Cmax, with a 4.82-fold increase. The pharmacokinetics change in GLS4 persisted after 9 days of chronic dosing, with a trough concentration of 182 ng/ml. Both single and multiple doses of GLS4 up to 240 mg with or without ritonavir were well tolerated. These results support the investigation of a novel HBV treatment regimen containing GLS4 with 100 mg ritonavir added solely to enhance GLS4 concentrations in plasma.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in China. Over a decade has passed since the last National Hepatitis Seroepidemiological Survey was conducted in 2006. The lack of updated data on hepatitis B in China makes assessing the current prevalence and burden of the disease inadequate. In response to the above situation, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to provide a better understanding of hepatitis B epidemiology in the general population of China.
A systematic search was conducted in international databases (Medline through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science) and national databases (CBM, CNKI, WanFang Data) to retrieve primary studies published between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. The pooled prevalence of HBV infection and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Quality assessment, heterogeneity testing and publication bias assessment were also performed.
Of the 27 studies included in the meta-analysis, the pooled estimated prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of China from 2013 to 2017 was 6.89% (95% CI:5.84–7.95%), which could be extrapolated to an estimated population of 84 million living with HBsAg in 2018. The prevalence of HBV infection in males was higher than that in females (5.88% vs 5.05%), and rural areas had a higher prevalence than urban areas (5.86% vs 3.29%). The highest prevalence of HBV infection was reported in Western provinces (8.92, 95% CI: 7.19–10.64%). In adults older than 20 years, the prevalence of HBV infection was approximately 7%, which was higher than that in children.
The prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of China was classified as higher intermediate prevalence (5–7.99%), of which more than 90% of the HBV infection population included adults older than 20 years. The blocking of mother-to-infant hepatitis B transmission and plans involving timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 h should be implemented. Additionally, improving the quality of life and survival rate of the infected population through antiviral therapy and high-risk adult vaccination will be the priority of our future work. Moreover, various control measures should be implemented in different provinces across China.
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem. Persistence of the virus occurs as a result of stability of the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Development of drugs that are capable of disabling this cccDNA is vital.
To investigate an epigenetic approach to inactivating viral DNA, we engineered transcriptional repressors that comprise an HBV DNA-binding domain of transcription activator like effectors (TALEs) and a fused Krüppel Associated Box (KRAB). These repressor TALEs (rTALEs) targeted the viral surface open reading frame and were placed under transcription control of constitutively active or liver-specific promoters.
Evaluation in cultured cells and following hydrodynamic injection of mice revealed that the rTALEs significantly inhibited production of markers of HBV replication without evidence of hepatotoxicity. Increased methylation of HBV DNA at CpG island II showed that the rTALEs caused intended epigenetic modification.
Epigenetic modification of HBV DNA is a new and effective means of inactivating the virus in vivo. The approach has therapeutic potential and avoids potentially problematic unintended mutagenesis of gene editing.
Journal of Medical Virology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
Rong‐Nan Chien Chau‐Ting Yeh
Tressler S, Kushner T, Bhandari R.
AbstractBackgroundWith the nation’s focus on the opioid crisis, methamphetamine has made a comeback, potentially increasing risk for hepatitis B. We examined factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) exposure among people who reported ever using methamphetamine in a nationally representative survey.MethodsWe utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine factors associated with HBV exposure among participants who reported ever using methamphetamine using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression.ResultsOverall, 847 participants met the study inclusion criteria. In multivariable logistic regression, female sex (aOR 3.83, 95% CI 1.65 – 8.90), living below the poverty threshold (aOR 3.17, 95% CI 1.39 – 7.21), injection drug use (IDU) (aOR 4.89, 95% CI 1.95 – 12.26), active hepatitis C (HCV) infection (aOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.10 – 12.26), and identifying as men who have sex with men (aOR 28.21, 95% CI 5.19 – 153.38) were significantly associated with HBV exposure.ConclusionsThe odds of HBV exposure for females who reported using methamphetamine was four times higher than males. Poverty, IDU, and HCV infection were also associated. As methamphetamine use increases, it is critical to identify those at risk of acquiring HBV infections in order to target testing and vaccination.
Kushner T, Chen Z, Tressler S, et al.
AbstractBackgroundThe current opioid injection drug use epidemic has been associated with an increase in hepatitis C (HCV) infections among women of childbearing age in the US, but changes in hepatitis B (HBV) infection have not been studied.MethodsA retrospective analysis of HBV status among women of childbearing age nationally and by state was conducted utilizing the Quest Diagnostics database. Rates of HBV in women born before and after implementation of universal HBV vaccination recommendations were determined.ResultsWe identified 8,871,965 women tested for HBV from 2011-2017. Nationally, the annual rate of acute HBV infections was stable, but increased in Kentucky, Alabama and Indiana (p
Maika S. Deffieu, Raphael Gaudin
Although important breakthroughs in our understanding of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle have been made since the discovery of its main entry factor, the spatiotemporal dynamics of HBV–host interactions remains understudied. Here, we discuss recent advances and continuing challenges to image the HBV life cycle in live cells.
Choi Y, Perez-Cuevas M, Kodani M, et al.
AbstractBackgroundDissolvable microneedle patches (dMNPs) provide ease of deployment and eliminate need for hypodermic needle disposal after conventional vaccinations. In this study, immunogenicity of dMNP delivery of adjuvant-free monovalent hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine (AFV) to standard intramuscular (IM) injection of monovalent aluminum-adjuvanted monovalent hepatitis B vaccine (AAV) were compared in rhesus macaques.MethodsSixteen macaques were immunized twice in 4 groups: dMNP delivery of 24 ± 8µg (n=4) or 48 ± 14µg (n=4) AFV; IM injection of 10µg AFV (IM AFV, n=4); and IM injection of 10µg AAV (IM AAV, n=4). Levels of hepatitis B surface antibody and HBsAg-specific T-cell responses were analyzed.ResultsSix of 8 animals with dMNP delivery of AFV had anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/ml after the first vaccine dose. After dMNP delivery of AFV, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 production by HBsAg-specific T-cells were detected. A statistically significant positive correlation was detected between anti-HBs levels and HBsAg-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 (Th1-type cytokine) and IL-4 (Th2-type cytokine) producing cells in all anti-HBs positive animals.ConclusionsdMNP delivery of AFV can elicit seroprotective anti-HBs levels in rhesus macaques that correlate in human seroprotection, and could be particularly promising for hepatitis B vaccine birth dose delivery in resource-constrained regions.
Lin lin Tao,
Li xian Ma
Anuisa Ranjan, Kate Shannon, Jill Chettiar, Melissa Braschel, Lianping Ti, Shira Goldenberg
Yun Liu, Minglei Jia, Shengdi Wu, Wei Jiang, Yifan Feng
Wang K, Lin W, Kuang Z, et al.
AbstractBackgroundLittle is known about cause and intervention for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation after complete viral suppression in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).MethodsIn this prospective cohort study, patients with CHB who were treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs and maintained undetectable levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for at least 6 months were enrolled. Patients were followed up at 6-month intervals, and anthropometric, biochemical, and virological assessments were performed.ResultsOf 1965 patients with median follow-up of 18.36 months, one third of patients experienced ALT elevation. Baseline high body mass index ([BMI] defined as ≥25 kg/m2), younger age, and liver cirrhosis independently increased the risk of longitudinal ALT elevation. At the end of follow-up, 89 (4.8%) patients reverted to low BMI, and 92 (5.0%) developed to high BMI. Compared with persistent high BMI, reversion to low BMI reduced the risk of ALT elevation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19–0.77); compared with persistent low BMI, onset of high BMI increased the risk of ALT elevation (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.11).ConclusionsHigh BMI is an independent predictor for ALT elevation after complete HBV DNA suppression. Improvement of BMI may have a beneficial effect on ALT normalization and even long-term outcomes.
Shing J, Ly K, Xing J, et al.
AbstractBackgroundHepatitis B virus (HBV) can transmit through needle sharing. National HBV infection prevalence in persons who inject drugs remains ill-defined. We estimated the prevalence of total HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) positivity, indicating previous or ongoing HBV infection, among adults aged 20-59 years with injection drug use (IDU) history. We compared select characteristics by anti-HBc status.MethodsUsing 2001-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we calculated anti-HBc+ prevalence among adults with IDU history and among the general US population. For adults with IDU history, we compared sex, age group, birth cohort, race/ethnicity, health insurance coverage, and hepatitis A immunity by anti-HBc status. Using marginal structural models, we calculated model-adjusted prevalence rates and ratios to determine characteristics associated with anti-HBc positivity among adults with IDU history.ResultsFrom 2001-2016, anti-HBc+ prevalence was 19.7% (95% CI, 16.0%-24.0%) among those with IDU history compared with 4.6% (95% CI, 4.3%-5.0%) in the general population. HBsAg+ prevalence was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3%-0.5%) in the general population. Among adults with IDU history, 19.8% reported past year IDU and 28.5% had hepatitis A immunity.ConclusionOne-fifth of adults with IDU history had previous or ongoing HBV infection, which was over four times higher than the prevalence in the general population. One-fifth of adults with IDU history reported past year use. Programs promoting safe IDU practices, drug treatment, and hepatitis A and B vaccination should be key components of viral hepatitis prevention.
, Owens DK, Davidson KW, et al.
This 2019 Recommendation Statement from the US Preventive Services Task Force reaffirms the prior recommendation to screen pregnant women for hepatitis B virus infection at their first prenatal visit (A recommendation).
This JAMA Patient Page describes the US Preventive Services Task Force’s recommendations on screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women.
Henderson JT, Webber EM, Bean SI.
This systematic review to support the 2019 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement on screening for hepatitis B infection in pregnant women summarizes published evidence on the benefits and harms of hepatitis B infection screening and case management in pregnant women.
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Lumbalpunktur af patienter i blodfortyndende behandling (2019)
Outbreak of macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae in a primary school in Beijing, China in 2018
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Acute liver failure due to visceral leishmaniasis in Barcelona: a case report
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus in liver disease patients in Botswana: a retrospective cross-sectional study
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Clinical outcomes among hospital patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Correction to: Rapid development of HIV elite control in a patient with acute infection
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
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Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Morten Sodemann, at du bør læse"Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Niels Obel, at du bør læse"Use of statins and risk of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy."?
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