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Version 8 er udarbejdet af en arbejdsgruppe nedsat af Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin samt Dansk Selskab for Gastroenterologi og Hepatologi
Medlemmer: Nina Weis (formand), Mette Rye Clausen, Peer Brehm Christensen, Henrik Krarup, Alex Lund Laursen, Lone Galmstrup Madsen
Forfattere: Jan Gerstoft, Nina Weis, Terese L. Katzenstein (Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin), Anders Nyboe Andersen og Jens Fedder (Dansk Fertilitetsselskab).
Anbefaling for profylakse og opfølgning af stikuheld og anden blodeksposition.
Revideret februar 2016. Arbejdsgruppen bestod af
Suzanne Lunding (formand), Peer Brehm Christensen, Christian Erikstrup, Terese L. Katzenstein, Henrik Krarup, Alex Lund Laursen, Birgitte Mørn og Nina Weis
Sundhedsstyrelsen har udarbejdet en fælles vejledning for forebyggelse af blodbåren smitte, diagnostik og håndtering af personer der har HIV eller hepatitis B og C. Vejledningen afspejler, at behandlingsmulighederne for disse sygdomme er væsentligt forbedrede.
EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines
Medicin.dk om behandling af hepatitis B
Medicin.dk om behandling af hepatitis C
Medicinrådets lægemiddelrekommandation for behandling af kronisk hepatitis C infektion
Dansk standard for rapportering af kronisk hepatitis B og C
Klik her for flere resultater
Hepatitis B is a major concern in Africa, especially in HIV-infected patients. Unfortunately, access to hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and adequate treatment remains a challenge in the continent. We investigated HBV testing, treatment, and virologic suppression in HIV-infected patients followed up as part of Cameroon’s national antiretroviral programme.
A cross-sectional survey was performed in adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 19 hospitals in the Centre and Littoral regions in Cameroon. The proportions of patients tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prior to the study were compared among all study hospitals using the Chi-square test. The association of individual and hospital-related characteristics with HBV testing and virologic suppression was assessed using multilevel logistic regression models.
Of 1706 patients (women 74%, median age 42 years, median time on ART 3.9 years), 302 (17.7%) had been tested for HBsAg prior to the study. The proportion of HBV-tested patients ranged from 0.8 to 72.5% according to the individual hospital (p
This study sought to provide up-to-date hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) seroprevalence in rural Burkina Faso decade after hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the national immunization scheduled for children.
In 2018, a community-based, random sampling strategy with probability proportional to population size was conducted in Nanoro to investigate the prevalence of viral hepatitis in children and their mothers. Sociodemographic, vaccination history and risk factors were assessed by interview and health books. HBsAg rapid tests were done by finger prick and Dried Blood Spots (DBS) were collected for hepatitis seromarkers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Positive samples underwent confirmatory PCR and phylogenetic analysis.
Data were presented on 240 mother-child pairs. HBsAg Prevalence was 0.8% in children and 6.3% in mothers. Hepatitis B core antibody positivity was 89.2% in mothers, 59.2% in children and was associated with age, sex and scarification. Hepatitis B surface antibodies prevalence was 37.5% in children and 5.8% in mothers. Good vaccination coverage was limited by home delivery. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV strains based on full genome sequences (n = 7) and s-fragment sequences (n = 6) revealed genotype A, E, and recombinant A3/E. Viral genome homology was reported in one mother-child pair. Anti-HCV prevalence was 5.4% in mothers, 2.1% in children and strains belonged to genotype 2.
In Nanoro, HBsAg prevalence was low in children, intermediate in mothers and mother-to-child transmission persists. Home delivery was a limiting factor of Hepatitis B vaccination coverage. HBV genotype E was predominant and genotype A3/E is reported for the first time in Burkina Faso.
Farag M, van Campenhout M, Pfefferkorn M, et al.
AbstractBackgroundHepatitis B virus RNA (HBV-RNA) is a novel serum biomarker that correlates with transcription of intrahepatic covalently closed circular (cccDNA) which is an important target for pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and novel therapies for functional cure. We studied HBV-RNA kinetics following PEG-IFN treatment and its potential role as a predictor to response in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.MethodsHBV-RNA levels were measured in 133 HBeAg-negative CHB patients treated in an international randomized controlled trial (PARC study). Patients received PEG-IFN α-2a for 48 weeks. HBV-RNA was measured from baseline through week 144. Response was defined as HBV-DNA below 2,000 IU/ml and ALT normalization at week 72. Kinetics of HBV-RNA were compared with HBV-DNA, HBsAg, and HBcrAg.ResultsMean HBV-RNA at baseline was 4.4 (SD 1.2) log10 c/mL. At week 12, HBV-RNA declined by -1.6 (1.1) log10 c/mL. HBV-RNA showed a greater decline in responders compared to non-responders early at week 12 (-2.0 [1.2] vs -1.5 [1.1] log10 c/mL, P=0.04). HBV-RNA level above 1700 c/mL (3.2 log10 c/mL) had a negative predictive value of 91% at week 12 and 93% at week 24 (P=0.01) for response. Overall, HBV-RNA showed a stronger correlation with HBV-DNA and HBcrAg (0.82 and 0.80, P
Loffredo-Verde E, Bhattacharjee S, Malo A, et al.
AbstractBackgroundChronic hepatitis B develops more frequently in countries with high prevalence of helminth infections. The crosstalk between these 2 major liver-residing pathogens, Schistosoma mansoni and hepatitis B virus (HBV), is barely understood.MethodsWe used state-of-the-art models for both acute and chronic HBV infection to study the pathogen-crosstalk during the different immune phases of schistosome infection. ResultsAlthough liver pathology caused by schistosome infection was not affected by either acute or chronic HBV infection, S mansoni infection influenced HBV infection outcomes in a phase-dependent manner. Interferon (IFN)-γ secreting, HBV- and schistosome-specific CD8 T cells acted in synergy to reduce HBV-induced pathology during the TH1 phase and chronic phase of schistosomiasis. Consequently, HBV was completely rescued in IFN-γ-deficient or in TH2 phase coinfected mice demonstrating the key role of this cytokine. It is interesting to note that secondary helminth infection on the basis of persistent (chronic) HBV infection increased HBV-specific T-cell frequency and resulted in suppression of virus replication but failed to fully restore T-cell function and eliminate HBV.ConclusionsThus, schistosome-induced IFN-γ had a prominent antiviral effect that outcompeted immunosuppressive effects of TH2 cytokines, whereas HBV coinfection did not alter schistosome pathogenicity.
Jiawen Wang, Panli Zhang, Jinfeng Zeng, Peng Du, Xin Zheng, Xianlin Ye, Weigang Zhu, Yongshui Fu, Daniel Candotti, Jean-Pierre Allain, Chengyao Li, Tingting Li
The story of hepatitis B is as fascinating as it is devastating. Chronic hepatitis B and acute liver failure deaths claim 900 000 people globally each year, and another 237 million people live with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, including 2·2 million in the USA. HBV replication in hepatocytes can cause cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in nearly a third of chronically infected adults. More than 80% of infants who are vertically infected through maternal blood develop chronic hepatitis B and might require life-long treatment.
Fatma Amer, Monkez M. Yousif, Heba Mohtady, Rania A. Khattab, Ergenekon Garagoz, Khan F.M. Ayaz, Noha M. Hammad
Butt A, Yan P, Aslam S, et al.
AbstractFor persons with baseline Fibrosis-4 1.46–3.25, cirrhosis incidence/1000 patient-years was 49.3 among hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected and 18.2 among HCV monoinfected (P = .03). Cirrhosis risk was numerically higher but statistically nonsignificant among HBV/HCV coinfected (hazards ratio [HR] 1.51; 95% confidence intervals [CI], .37–6.05) but lower among those who attained sustained virologic response (HR, .52; 95% CI, .42–.63).
Singh K, Lewin S.
Leumi S, Bigna J, Amougou M, et al.
AbstractBackgroundThis systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence and burden of HBV infection in PLWH at global, regional, and national levels.MethodsWe searched of PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Web of Science, and Global Index Medicus to identify studies published between January 01, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. HBV infection (HBs antigen) had to be diagnosed with serological assays. Random-effect models meta-analysis served to pool data.ResultsWe included 358 studies (834,544 PLWH from 87 countries). The pooled prevalence of HBV infection was 8.4% (95% confidence interval: 7.9-8.8); among which 26.8% (22.0-31.9) were positive to HBe antigen. The HBV prevalence was different according to UNAIDS regions: West & Central Africa: 12.4% (11.0-13.8), Middle East & North Africa: 9.9% (6.0-14.6), Asia & the Pacific: 9.8% (8.7-11.0), Eastern & Southern Africa: 7.4% (6.4-8.4), Western and Central Europe & North America: 6.0% (5.5-6.7), and Latin America & the Caribbean: 5.1% (4.2-6.2); p < 0.0001. The prevalence decreased from 10.4% in low to 6.6% in very high developed countries; p < 0.0001 and increased from 7.3% in countries with HIV prevalence ≤ 1% to 9.7% in countries with HIV prevalence > 1%; p < 0.0001. Globally, we estimated that there were roughly 3,136,500 (95%CI: 2,95,2000-3,284,100) cases of HBV in PLWH; with 73.8% of estimated regional cases from sub-Saharan Africa and 17.1% from Asia & the Pacific.ConclusionsThis study suggests a high burden of HBV infection in PLWH, with disparities according to regions, level of development, and country HIV prevalence.
Grace L.‐H. Wong,
Margo J. H. Campenhout,
Vincent W.‐S. Wong,
Terry C.‐F. Yip,
Henry L.‐Y. Chan
Journal of Medical Virology, EarlyView.
Journal of Medical Virology, Volume 92, Issue 1, Page 62-70, January 2020.
Journal of Medical Virology, Volume 92, Issue 1, Page 124-127, January 2020.
Journal of Medical Virology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
Bo Langhoff Hønge,
Jens Steen Olesen,
Mads Mose Jensen,
Zacarias José Silva,
Alex Lund Laursen,
Tropical Medicine &International Health, EarlyView.
Vaccine escape mutants (VEMs) are one of the causes of breakthrough infections in the mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We hypothesized that VEMs existing as minor populations in the maternal blood are associated with breakthrough infections in children. We sought to determine whether VEMs exist as minor populations in the preserved umbilical cords of children with breakthrough infections.
Two families (Family 1: three children, Family 2: two children) were enrolled. Despite immunoprophylaxis, a breakthrough infection occurred in two Family 1 children and two Family 2 children. Preserved umbilical cords, serum, and nails were used for the HBV DNA analysis. To detect VEMs, we performed direct and deep sequencing of hepatitis B surface antigen gene. The direct sequencing showed that there were no VEMs in the serum of the children or mother of Family 1 and family 2, but it identified a G145A mutant in the nails of the mother of Family 2. In Family 1, deep sequencing detected a T143S mutant as a minor population (1.7–2.0%) in the umbilical cords and serum of all three children and in the serum of the mother. A T126A mutant was also detected in the umbilical cord (9.2%) and serum (7.0%) of the first-born child of Family 1. In Family 2, the deep sequencing showed no VEMs in the umbilical cords, but it detected D144A (2.5%) and G145A (11.2%) mutants in the serum of the 2nd-born child.
VEMs were present as minor populations in the preserved umbilical cords of children with breakthrough infections. The VEMs did not become major populations after the breakthrough infections. The evolution of VEMs from a minor form to a major form might not be a prerequisite for breakthrough infections in mother-to-child transmission.
Balagopal A, Hwang H, Grudda T, et al.
AbstractHepatitis B virus (HBV) is a leading cause of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Approximately 10% of people with HIV also have HBV, and are at higher risk of liver disease progression than in HBV mono-infection. Antivirals, common to HIV and HBV, suppress HBV DNA levels but do not eradicate the virus because the transcriptional template, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), is long-lived in every infected hepatocyte. Using single-cell laser capture microdissection, we isolated >1100 hepatocytes from five HIV/HBV co-infected persons with increasing exposure to HBV antivirals (HB1-5; no exposure to >7 years of exposure), quantifying cccDNA and pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA) in each cell using droplet-digital PCR. The proportion of infected hepatocytes decreased with antiviral exposure from 96.4% (HB1) to 29.8% (HB5). Both the upper cccDNA range and the median pgRNA decreased from HB1 to HB5 (p
A major hurdle in the long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is to maintain viral suppression in the absence of drug resistance. To date, no evidence of resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been observed. A cumulative evaluation of CHB patients who qualified for resistance surveillance over 8 years of TDF treatment was conducted. Patients in studies GS-US-174-0102 (HBeAg-) and GS-US-174-0103 (HBeAg+) were randomized 2:1 to receive TDF or adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for 48 weeks followed by open-label TDF through year 8. Population sequencing of HBV pol/RT was attempted for all TDF-treated patients at baseline and, annually if viremic, at discontinuation, or with addition of emtricitabine. Overall, 88/641 (13.7%) patients qualified for sequence analysis at one or more time points. The percentage of patients qualifying for sequence analysis declined over time, from 9 to 11% in years 1-2 to <4% over years 3-8. Forty-one episodes of virologic breakthrough (VB) occurred throughout the study, with most (n=29, 70%) associated with nonadherence to study medication. Fifty-nine per cent of VB patients with an opportunity to resuppress HBV achieved HBV DNA resuppression. A minority of patients who qualified for sequencing had polymorphic (41/165, 24.8%) or conserved (17/165, 10.3%) site changes in pol/RT, with six patients developing lamivudine and/or ADV resistance-associated mutations. No accumulation of conserved site changes was detected. The long-term treatment of CHB with TDF monotherapy maintains effective suppression of HBV DNA through 8 years, with no evidence of TDF resistance or accumulation of conserved site changes.
In phase 2 trials, treatment with the combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3.
A simple treatment regimen that is effective in a broad range of patients who are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet medical need.
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations. Patients with HCV may develop mixed cryoglobulinemia and its sequelae, ranging from cutaneous and visceral vasculitis to glomerulonephritis and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. HCV-infected patients have increased rates of insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, which may lead to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Neurological manifestations of HCV infection include fatigue and cognitive impairment. The mechanisms causing the extrahepatic effects of HCV infection are likely multifactorial and may include endocrine effects, HCV replication in extrahepatic cells, or a heightened immune reaction with systemic effects. Successful eradication of HCV with interferon alfa and ribavirin was shown to improve some of these extrahepatic effects; sustained virological response is associated with resolution of complications of cryoglobulinemia, reduced levels of insulin resistance, reduced incidence of diabetes and stroke, and improved fatigue and cognitive functioning. The availability of new interferon-free, well-tolerated anti-HCV treatment regimens is broadening the spectrum of patients available for therapy, including those in whom interferon was contraindicated, and will likely result in greater improvements in the extrahepatic manifestations of HCV. If these regimens are shown to confer significant benefit in the metabolic, cardiovascular, or neuropsychiatric conditions associated with HCV infection, extrahepatic manifestations of HCV may become a major indication for treatment even in the absence of liver disease.
Worldwide, although predominantly in low-income countries in the Middle East and Africa, up to 13% of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are caused by HCV genotype 4. For patients with HCV genotype 1, the combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir has been shown to cure high proportions of patients with excellent tolerability, but this regimen has not been assessed for the treatment of HCV genotype 4. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 12 weeks of combination therapy with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infections.
Novel interferon- and ribavirin-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
The Phase-2 C-SALVAGE study evaluated an investigational interferon-free combination of grazoprevir (a NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (a NS5A inhibitor) with ribavirin for patients with chronic HCV genotype-1 infection who had failed licensed DAA-containing therapy.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 accounts for about 13% of global HCV infections. Because interferon-containing treatments for genotype 4 infection have low efficacy and poor tolerability, an unmet need exists for effective all-oral regimens. We examined the efficacy and safety of an all-oral interferon-free regimen of ombitasvir, an NS5A inhibitor, and paritaprevir (ABT-450), an NS3/4A protease inhibitor dosed with ritonavir (ombitasvir plus paritaprevir plus ritonavir), given with or without ribavirin.
Patients with cirrhosis resulting from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at risk of life-threatening complications, but consistently achieve lower sustained virological response (SVR) than patients without cirrhosis, especially if treatment has previously failed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, with and without ribavirin.
Interferon-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We investigated the efficacy of combined simeprevir and sofosbuvir.
Effective treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in patients who have not had a sustained virologic response to prior interferon-based therapy represents an unmet medical need.
In this phase 3 trial we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the interferon-free combination of ABT-450 with ritonavir (ABT-450/r), ombitasvir (also known as ABT-267), dasabuvir (also known as ABT-333), and ribavirin for the retreatment of HCV in patients who were previously treated with peginterferon-ribavirin.
No data are available about the prediction of long-term survival using repeated noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to assess the prognostic value of 3-year liver stiffness measurement (LSM), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) evolution in CHC. CHC patients with two LSM (1,000-1,500 days interval) were prospectively included. Blood fibrosis tests APRI and FIB-4 were calculated the day of baseline (bLSM) and follow-up (fLSM) LSM. Evolution of fibrosis tests was expressed as delta: (follow-up-baseline results)/duration. Date and cause of death were recorded during follow-up that started the day of fLSM. In all, 1,025 patients were included. Median follow-up after fLSM was 38.0 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 27.7-46.1) during which 35 patients died (14 liver-related death) and seven had liver transplantation. Prognostic accuracy (Harrell C-index) of multivariate models including baseline and delta results was not significantly different between LSM and FIB-4 (P ≥ 0.24), whereas FIB-4 provided more accurate prognostic models than APRI (P = 0.03). By multivariate analysis including LSM variables, overall survival was independently predicted by bLSM, delta (dLSM), and sustained virological response (SVR). Prognosis was excellent in patients having bLSM <7 kPa, SVR, or no increase (<1 kPa/year) in 7-14 kPa bLSM. Prognosis was significantly impaired in patients with an increase (≥ 1 kPa/year) in 7-14 kPa bLSM, or decrease (≤ 0 kPa/year) in ≥ 14 kPa bLSM (P = 0.949 between these two groups). Patients with an increase (>0 kPa/year) in ≥ 14 kPa bLSM had the worst prognosis. Baseline and delta FIB-4 also identified patient subgroups with significantly different prognosis.
All-oral combination therapy is desirable for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We evaluated daclatasvir (an HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir (a nucleotide analogue HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor) in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3.
Early treatment of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with interferon alfa monotherapy is very effective, with cure rates of greater than 85%. However, spontaneous clearance of HCV occurs in 10-50% of cases. We aimed to assess an alternative treatment strategy of delayed antiviral therapy in patients who do not eliminate the virus spontaneously compared with immediate treatment.
Earlier studies have suggested neurocognitive impairment in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection even before liver cirrhosis has developed. Since these deficits might be reversible after successful antiviral therapy, we analyzed the long-term course of neurocognitive parameters in HCV patients with and without successful virus elimination by an interferon-based antiviral treatment. In a multicenter study including 168 HCV patients receiving antiviral therapy (peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin) we performed a long-term follow-up of neurocognitive performance before and after treatment. Neurocognitive function was psychometrically assessed using the computer-aided TAP (Test Battery of Attentional Performance). When tested at least 12 months after termination of antiviral treatment, patients with sustained virologic response (SVR) had improved significantly as compared to their pretreatment performance in three of five TAP subtasks (vigilance, P < 0.001; shared attention: optical task, P < 0.001; working memory, P < 0.001). Patients who failed to eradicate the virus, however, showed no significant long-term changes in neurocognitive performance in all five subtasks assessed (0.194 < P < 0.804). In the posttreatment evaluation, neurocognitive function was significantly better in responders to the antiviral therapy as compared to nonresponders.
A national survey for chronic hepatitis C has not been performed in Denmark and the prevalence is unknown. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C from public registers and the proportion of these patients who received specialized healthcare.
Since 2000 outbreaks of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who denied injecting drug use have been reported from Europe, the United States, Canada and Australia. Given the burden of liver disease, in particular HCV, on the morbidity and mortality in HIV patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, the rapid and significant rise in the incidence of HCV in the HIV-infected MSM population in high-income countries is alarming. This relates to a significant change in the epidemiology of HCV that has occurred, with HCV emerging as a sexually transmitted infection within this population. Work to date suggests that this permucosal HCV transmission results from high-risk sexual and noninjecting drug use behaviours, reopening the discussion on the importance of sexual transmission. Given this occurs almost exclusively in HIV-infected MSM, HIV probably has a critical role mediated either through behavioural and/or biological factors. Finally, the management of acute HCV in HIV infection is complicated by concomitant HIV infection and combination antiretroviral therapy. This review will synthesize the most recent epidemiological, immunological and management issues that have emerged as a result of the epidemic of acute HCV among HIV-infected MSM.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a nucleotide analogue and a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase.
The diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have witnessed major changes over the past decade. Until the early 1990s, HCC was a relatively rare malignancy, typically diagnosed at an advanced stage in a symptomatic patient, and there were no known effective palliative or therapeutic options. However, the rising incidence of HCC in several regions around the world coupled with emerging evidence for efficacy of screening in high-risk patients, liver transplantation as a curative option in select patients, ability to make definitive diagnosis using high-resolution imaging of the liver, less dependency on obtaining tissue diagnosis, and proven efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization and sorafenib as palliative therapy have improved the outlook for HCC patients. In this article, we present a summary of the most recent information on screening, diagnosis, staging, and different treatment modalities of HCC, as well as our recommended management approach.
Entecavir, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, is not believed to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at clinically relevant doses. We observed that entecavir led to a consistent 1-log(10) decrease in HIV-1 RNA in three persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection, and we obtained supportive in vitro evidence that entecavir is a potent partial inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. Detailed analysis showed that in one of these patients, entecavir monotherapy led to an accumulation of HIV-1 variants with the lamivudine-resistant mutation, M184V. In vitro experiments showed that M184V confers resistance to entecavir. Until more is known about HIV-1-resistance patterns and their selection by entecavir, caution is needed with the use of entecavir in persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection who are not receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral regimens.
Entecavir is a potent and selective guanosine analogue with significant activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV).
The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has never been studied according to the concept of liver fibrosis progression. The aim of this work was to assess the fibrosis progression rate in HIV-HCV coinfected patients and in patients infected by HCV only. A cohort of 122 HIV-HCV coinfected patients was compared with a control group of 122 HIV-negative HCV-infected patients. Groups were matched according to age, sex, daily alcohol consumption, age at HCV infection, and duration and route of HCV infection. The fibrosis progression rate was defined as the ratio between fibrosis stage (METAVIR scoring system) and the HCV duration. The prevalence of extensive liver fibrosis (METAVIR fibrosis scores 2, 3, and 4) and moderate or severe activity were higher in HIV-infected patients (60% and 54%, respectively) than in control patients (47% and 30%, respectively; P <.05 and P <.001, respectively). The median fibrosis progression rate in coinfected patients and in control patients was 0.153 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.117-0.181) and 0.106 (95% CI, 0.084-0.125) fibrosis units per year, respectively (P <.0001). HIV seropositivity (P <.0001), alcohol consumption (>50 g/d, P =.0002), age at HCV infection (<25 years old, P <.0001), and severe immunosuppression (CD4 count =200 cells/microL, P <.0001) were associated with an increase in the fibrosis progression rate. In coinfected patients, alcohol consumption (>50 g/d), CD4 count (=200 cells/microL), and age at HCV infection (<25 years old) (P <. 0001, respectively) were associated with a higher fibrosis progression rate. HIV seropositivity accelerates HCV-related liver fibrosis progression. In coinfected patients, a low CD4 count, alcohol consumption rate, and age at HCV infection are associated with a higher liver fibrosis progression rate.
Our aim was to assess the natural history of liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C and the factors associated with this progression.
Few data are available concerning the long-term prognosis of chronic liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection. This study examined the morbidity and survival of patients with compensated cirrhosis type C.
We measured antibody (anti-HCV) to hepatitis C virus, which causes non-A, non-B hepatitis, by radioimmunoassay in prospectively followed transfusion recipients and their donors. Of 15 patients with chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis documented by liver biopsy, all seroconverted for the antibody; of 5 with acute resolving non-A, non-B hepatitis, 3 (60 percent) seroconverted. The development of anti-HCV was delayed (mean delay, 21.9 weeks after transfusion, or 15 weeks after the onset of clinical hepatitis) and took approximately one year in one patient. Antibody has persisted in 14 of the 15 patients with chronic disease (mean follow-up, greater than or equal to 6.9 years; maximum, greater than or equal to 12), but has disappeared in the 3 with acute resolving disease after a mean of 4.1 years. Anti-HCV was detected in samples of donor serum given to 14 (88 percent) of the 16 anti-HCV-positive patients for whom all donor samples were available. Only 33 percent of the anti-HCV-positive donors tested had an elevated serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase; 54 percent were positive for antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). We conclude that hepatitis C virus is the predominant agent of transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis and that screening of donors for anti-HCV could prevent the majority of cases of the disease. "Surrogate" assays for anti-HBc and alanine aminotransferase would have detected approximately half the anti-HCV-positive donors involved in the transmission of hepatitis that we identified.
Specialespecifikt kursus om immundefekt og feber af ukendt årsag
28.01.2020 - 29.01.2020
International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) 2020
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
20.02.2020 - 23.02.2020
Dansk Selskab for Intern Medicin (DSIM) årsmøde og overrækkelse af Hagedorn prisen 2020
Novo Nordisk Fonden, Tuborg Havnevej 19, 2900 Hellerup
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2020
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
8.03.2020 - 11.03.2020
Når CROI går i fisk - med transmissioner fra CROI 2020
10.03.2020 - 11.03.2020
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Lumbalpunktur af patienter i blodfortyndende behandling (2019)
Single dose of Doxycycline for the prevention of TBRF
19.01.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by emerging serotypes after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in England; prospective observational cohort study, 2014-18
19.01.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
The effect of therapeutic drug monitoring of beta-lactam and fluoroquinolones on clinical outcome in critically ill patients: the DOLPHIN trial protocol of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial
17.01.2020Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Fatal hemorrhagic varicella in a patient with abdominal pain: a case report
17.01.2020Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Antifungal resistance in patients with Candidaemia: a retrospective cohort study
17.01.2020Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Hvad synes Professor Jens Lundgren om"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvad mener Professor Troels Lillebæk om artiklen"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad synes Professor Lars Østergaard om"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad tænker Professor Thomas Benfield om"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvad mener Professor Niels Obel om artiklen"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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