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Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protozoa in human faecal samples with uncertain impact on public health. Studies on the prevalence of Blastocystis in HIV-positive patients are limited and dated.
A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 156 HIV-positive patients to evaluate the prevalence of Blastocystis-subtypes by molecular amplification and sequencing the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA), to identify the risk factors for its transmission, to examine the relationship between the presence of the protist and gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, the evaluation of the faecal calprotectin by immunoassay from a sample of subjects was performed to evaluate the gut inflammation in Blastocystis-carriers.
Blastocystis-subtypes ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4 were identified in 39 HIV-positive patients (25%). No correlation was found between the presence of the protist and virological or epidemiological risk factors. Blastocystis was more frequently detected in homosexual subjects (p = 0.037) infected by other enteric protozoa (p = 0.0001) and with flatulence (p = 0.024). No significant differences in calprotectin level was found between Blastocystis-carriers and free ones.
Blastocystis is quite common in HIV-positive patients on ART showing in examined patients 25% prevalence. Homosexual behaviour may represent a risk factor for its transmission, while CD4 count and viremia didn’t correlate with the presence of the protist. The pathogenetic role of Blastocystis remains unclear and no gut inflammation status was detected in Blastocystis-carriers. The only symptom associated with Blastocystis was the flatulence, evidencing a link between the presence of the protist and the composition and stability of gut microbiota.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease globally. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have proven effective in curing HCV. However, the current standard of care (SOC) in Botswana remains PEGylated interferon-α (IFN-α) with ribavirin. Several mutations have been reported to confer resistance to interferon-based treatments. Therefore, there is a need to determine HCV genotypes in Botswana, as these data will guide new treatment guidelines and understanding of HCV epidemiology in Botswana.
This was a retrospective cross-sectional pilot study utilizing plasma obtained from 55 participants from Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. The partial core region of HCV was amplified, and genotypes were determined using phylogenetic analysis.
Four genotype 5a and two genotype 4v sequences were identified. Two significant mutations – K10Q and R70Q – were observed in genotype 5a sequences and have been associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while R70Q confers resistance to interferon-based treatments.
Genotypes 5a and 4v are circulating in Botswana. The presence of mutations in genotype 5 suggests that some patients may not respond to IFN-based regimens. The information obtained in this study, in addition to the World health organization (WHO) recommendations, can be utilized by policy makers to implement DAAs as the new SOC for HCV treatment in Botswana.
On 7th June, 2018, a primary school in Beijing, China notified Shunyi CDC of an outbreak of acute respiratory disease characterized by fever and cough among students and resulting in nine hospitalization cases during the preceding 2 weeks. We started an investigation to identify the etiologic agent, find additional cases, develop and implement control measures.
We defined probable cases as students, teachers and other staffs in the school developed fever (T ≥ 37.5 °C) with cough or sore throat; or a diagnosis of pneumonia during May 1–June 31, 2018. Confirmed cases were probable cases with Mycoplasma pneumoniae detected in oropharyngeal (OP) swabs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We searched case by reviewing school absenteeism records and interviewing students, teachers and staff in this school. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from symptomatic students. Two qPCR) assay, a duplex qPCR assay, and sequencing were performed to determine the pathogen, genotype and macrolide resistance at the gene level, respectively.
From May 1st to June 31st, 2018, we identified 55 cases (36 probable and 19 confirmed), of whom 25 (45%) were hospitalized for complications. All cases were students, none of the teachers and other staffs in the school were with similar symptoms. The attack rate (AR) was 3.9% (55/1398) for all students. The cases were mainly male (58%), with an age range of 7–8 years (median: 7 years). 72% (18/25) of inpatients had radiograph findings consistent with pneumonia, and some cases were hospitalized for up to 4 weeks. Pathogen detection results indicated that Mycoplasma pneumonia (M. pneumoniae) P1 type 1 was the causative agent in this outbreak, and the strain harbored one point mutation of A to G at position 2063.
The infections by macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae are not always mild and pneumonia was common and M. pneumoniae could causes serious complications which require long-term hospitalization. In the future infectious disease prevention and control practice, M. pneumoniae should be paid more attention. It is necessary to establish and improve the pathogen and drug resistance surveillance system in order to prevent and control such mutated strains of M. pneumoniae from causing future outbreaks or epidemics in China.
Jensen, Hanne Irene; Hebsgaard, Stine; Hansen, Tina Charlotte Bitsch; Johnsen, Rikke Frank Aagaard; Hartog, Christiane S.; Soultati, Ioanna; Szucs, Orsolya; Wilson, Michael E.; van den Bulcke, Bo; Benoit, Dominique D.; Piers, Ruth
To examine perceptions of nurses and physicians in regard to ethical decision-making climate in the ICU and to test the hypothesis that the worse the ethical decision-making climate, the greater the discordance between nurses’ and physicians’ rating of ethical decision-making climate with physicians hypothesized to rate the climate better than the nurses.
Prospective observational study.
A total of 68 adult ICUs in 13 European countries and the United States.
ICU physicians and nurses.
Measurements and Main Results:
Perceptions of ethical decision-making climate among clinicians were measured in April-May 2014, using a 35-items self-assessment questionnaire that evaluated seven factors (empowering leadership by physicians, interdisciplinary reflection, not avoiding end-of-life decisions, mutual respect within the interdisciplinary team, involvement of nurses in end-of-life care and decision-making, active decision-making by physicians, and ethical awareness). A total of 2,275 nurses and 717 physicians participated (response rate of 63%). Using cluster analysis, ICUs were categorized according to four ethical decision-making climates: good, average with nurses’ involvement at end-of-life, average without nurses’ involvement at end-of-life, and poor. Overall, physicians rated ethical decision-making climate more positively than nurses (p < 0.001 for all seven factors). Physicians had more positive perceptions of ethical decision-making climate than nurses in all 13 participating countries and in each individual participating ICU. Compared to ICUs with good or average ethical decision-making climates, ICUs with poor ethical decision-making climates had the greatest discordance between physicians and nurses. Although nurse/physician differences were found in all seven factors of ethical decision-making climate measurement, the factors with greatest discordance were regarding physician leadership, interdisciplinary reflection, and not avoiding end-of-life decisions.
Physicians consistently perceived ICU ethical decision-making climate more positively than nurses. ICUs with poor ethical decision-making climates had the largest discrepancies.
This work was carried out 68 adult ICUs in 13 European countries and the United States. Please see the Acknowledgments section at the end of the article for details.
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s website (http://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal).
Dr. Benoit received funding from the Research Foundation Flanders (1800513N and 1800518N) and from ESICM/European Critical Care Research Network clinical research award. Dr. Piers received funding from Fund Marie-Thérèse De Lava, King Baudouin Foundation, Belgium. Dr. Hartog received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research via the Center for Sepsis Control and Care (FKZ 01EO1002) and a grant from the Innovation Funds of the German Federal Joint Committee (FKZ 91VSF17010). The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
For information regarding this article, E-mail: email@example.com
Copyright © by 2019 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
, Le Gal S, Toubas D, et al.
AbstractThe burden of nosocomial Pneumocystis infections in transplantation units in France was evaluated through a retrospective survey. Over 12 years, 16 outbreaks occurred, including 13 among renal transplant recipients (RTRs). We performed Pneumocystis jirovecii genotyping in 5 outbreaks, which suggested that specific strains may have been selected by RTRs.
Pandoraea species is a newly described genus, which is multidrug resistant and difficult to identify. Clinical isolates are mostly cultured from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF is a rare disease in China, which makes Pandoraea a total stranger to Chinese physicians. Pandoraea genus is reported as an emerging pathogen in CF patients in most cases. However, there are few pieces of evidence that confirm Pandoraea can be more virulent in non-CF patients. The pathogenicity of Pandoraea genus is poorly understood, as well as its treatment. The incidence of Pandoraea induced infection in non-CF patients may be underestimated and it’s important to identify and understand these organisms.
We report a 44-years-old man who suffered from pneumonia and died eventually. Before his condition deteriorated, a Gram-negative bacilli was cultured from his sputum and identified as Pandoraea Apista by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).
Pandoraea spp. is an emerging opportunistic pathogen. The incidences of Pandoraea related infection in non-CF patients may be underestimated due to the difficulty of identification. All strains of Pandoraea show multi-drug resistance and highly variable susceptibility. To better treatment, species-level identification and antibiotic susceptibility test are necessary.
Gomes-Solecki M, Arnaboldi P, Backenson P, et al.
AbstractLyme disease, caused by some Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere and the number of cases, and geographic spread, continue to grow. Previously identified B. burgdorferi proteins, lipid immunogens, and live mutants lead the design of canonical vaccines aimed at disrupting infection in the host. Discovery of the mechanism of action of the first vaccine catalyzed the development of new strategies to control Lyme disease that bypassed direct vaccination of the human host. Thus, novel prevention concepts center on proteins produced by B. burgdorferi during tick transit and on tick proteins that mediate feeding and pathogen transmission. A burgeoning area of research is tick immunity as it can unlock mechanistic pathways that could be targeted for disruption. Studies that shed light on the mammalian immune pathways engaged during tick-transmitted B. burgdorferi infection would further development of vaccination strategies against Lyme disease.
K. A. Shaw et al.
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare clinical disease with relative CD4 deficiency in the absence of HIV infection. The pathogenicity of ICL is poorly understood with an unclear incidence rate in the general population. Sequelae of ICL includes AIDS-defining infections, which most commonly includes Cryptococcus neoformans. Typically, C. neoformans infections present with CNS involvement but rarely with extra-CNS manifestations. Here, we present a rare case of ICL with exclusively primary pulmonary cryptococcus and a review of the literature.
A 56-year-old female presented to our tertiary care hospital requiring a right hip open reduction intervention. The patient became febrile during admission, prompting a work-up that included a chest X-ray showing a peripheral pulmonary solitary nodule. Transthoracic biopsy revealed encapsulated yeast forms in keeping with C. neoformans. CD4 counts, repeated at least one month apart, were
Imlay H, Krantz E, Stohs E, et al.
AbstractBackgroundPatients with reported beta lactam antibiotic allergies (BLA) are more likely to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics and experience adverse outcomes. Data describing antibiotic allergies among solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are limited.MethodsWe reviewed records of adult SOT or allogeneic HCT recipients from 1/1/2013-12/31/2017 to characterize reported antibiotic allergies at time of transplant. Inpatient antibiotic use was examined for 100 days post-transplant. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) comparing antibiotic use in BLA and non-BLA groups were calculated using multivariable negative binomial models for two metrics: days of therapy (DOT)/1000 inpatient days and percentage of antibiotic exposure days.ResultsAmong 2153 SOT (65%) and HCT (35%) recipients, 634 (29%) reported any antibiotic allergy and 347 (16%) reported BLA. Inpatient antibiotics were administered to 2020 (94%) patients during the first 100 days post-transplant; average antibiotic exposure was 41% of inpatient days (Interquartile range (IQR) 16.7%, 62.5%). BLA patients had significantly higher DOT for vancomycin (IRR 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.2, 1.7]; p
Durukan D, Read T, Murray G, et al.
AbstractBackgroundMacrolide-resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) exceeds 50% in many regions and quinolone-resistance is increasing. We recently reported that resistance-guided therapy (RGT) using doxycycline followed by sitafloxacin or 2.5g-azithromycin cured 92% and 95% of macrolide-resistant and macrolide-susceptible infections, respectively. We now present the data on RGT using doxycycline-moxifloxacin, the regimen recommended in international guidelines, and extend the data on the efficacy of doxyxycline-2.5g azithromycin and subsequent de novo macrolide-resistance.MethodsPatients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2017-2018 with STI-related syndromes were treated with doxycycline for 7 days and recalled if positive for MG. Macrolide-susceptible cases then received 2.5g azithromycin (1g, then 500mg daily for 3 days) and resistant cases received moxifloxacin (400 mg daily, 7 days). Test of cure (TOC) was recommended 14-28 days post-completion of antimicrobials. Adherence and adverse effects were recorded.ResultsA total of 383 patients (81 females/106 heterosexual males/196 men-who-have-sex-with-men) were included. Microbial cure following doxycycline-azithromycin was 95.4% (95% CI 89.7-98.0) and doxycycline-moxifloxacin was 92.0%(88.1-94.6). De novo macrolide-resistance was detected in 4.6% of cases. Combining doxycycline-azithromycin data with our prior RGT study (n=186) yielded a pooled cure of 95.7% (91.6-97.8). ParC mutations implicated in moxifloxacin failure were present in 15-22% of macrolide-resistant cases at baseline.ConclusionThese findings support the inclusion of moxifloxacin in resistance-guided strategies and extend the evidence for use of 2.5g azithromycin, and presumptive use of doxycycline. These data provide an evidence-base for current UK, Australian and European guidelines for the treatment of MG, an STI which is increasingly challenging to cure.
Vazquez F, Fernández J.
Mycoplasma genitaliumtreatmentdrug resistancebacterial loaddiagnostic tests
Pavia A, , Ison M, et al.
To the Editor—We thank Apewokin and Onyishi  for allowing us to correct an error in the Infectious Diseases Society of America’s clinical practice guidelines on influenza . In their study, they reported that 7 of 31 (23%) of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with influenza met the case definition of influenzalike illness, not 7%, as we cited. Their work and the work of others clearly demonstrate that immunocompromised patients with influenza frequently present with atypical clinical features and are at higher risk of complications from influenza, including death [3–5].
K. E. Lafond et al.
Vannice K, Ricaldi J, Nanduri S, et al.
ABSTRACTTwo near-identical clinical Streptococcus pyogenes isolates of emm subtype emm43.4 with a pbp2x missense mutation (T553K) were detected. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin and amoxicillin were 8-fold higher, and the MIC for cefotaxime was 3-fold higher than for near-isogenic control isolates, consistent with a first-step in developing β-lactam resistance.
Hanage W, Shelburne S, III.
Tuberculosis is an important health concern in Iraq, but limited research has examined the quality of tuberculosis care and the survival of the patients. This study aimed to assess the 12-month survival of tuberculosis patients and evaluate the effect of the associated risk factors on patients’ survival.
We reviewed the records of 728 patients with tuberculosis who were registered and treated at the Chest and Respiratory Disease Center in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, from January 2012 to December 2017. Demographic data, the site of the disease, and treatment outcomes were retrieved from patients’ records. Data analysis included the use of the Kaplan–Meier method and the log-rank test to calculate the estimates of the survival and assess the differences in the survival among the patients. The Cox regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis.
The mean period of the follow-up of the patients was 7.6 months. Of 728 patients with tuberculosis, 50 (6.9%) had died. The 12-month survival rate of our study was 93.1%. A statistically significant difference was detected in the survival curves of different age groups (P
Exposure to blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis that transmit pathogens is thought to occur peri-domestically. However, the locations where people most frequently encounter infected ticks are not well characterized, leading to mixed messages from public health officials about where risk is highest.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on spatial risk factors for tick-borne disease and tick bites in eastern North America. We examined three scales: the residential yard, the neighborhood surrounding (but not including) the yard, and outside the neighborhood. Nineteen eligible studies represented 2741 cases of tick-borne illness and 1447 tick bites. Using random effects models, we derived pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates.
The meta-analysis revealed significant disease risk factors at the scale of the yard (OR 2.60 95% CI 1.96 – 3.46), the neighborhood (OR 4.08 95% CI 2.49 – 6.68), and outside the neighborhood (OR 2.03 95% CI 1.59 – 2.59). Although significant risk exists at each scale, neighborhood scale risk factors best explained disease exposure. Analysis of variance revealed risk at the neighborhood scale was 57% greater than risk at the yard scale and 101% greater than risk outside the neighborhood.
This analysis emphasizes the importance of understanding and reducing tick-borne disease risk at the neighborhood scale. Risk-reducing interventions applied at each scale could be effective, but interventions applied at the neighborhood scale are most likely to protect human health.
The study was registered with PROSPERO: CRD42017079169.
Drug resistant malaria is a growing concern in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), where previous studies indicate that parasites resistant to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine or chloroquine are spatially clustered. This study explores longitudinal changes in spatial patterns to understand how resistant malaria may be spreading within the DRC, using samples from nation-wide population-representative surveys.
We selected 552 children with PCR-detectable Plasmodium falciparum infection and identified known variants in the pfdhps and pfcrt genes associated with resistance. We compared the proportion of mutant parasites in 2013 to those previously reported from adults in 2007, and identified risk factors for carrying a resistant allele using multivariate mixed-effects modeling. Finally, we fit a spatial-temporal model to the observed data, providing smooth allele frequency estimates over space and time.
The proportion of co-occurring pfdhps K540E/A581G mutations increased by 16% between 2007 and 2013. The spatial-temporal model suggests that the spatial range of the pfdhps double mutants expanded over time, while the prevalence and range of pfcrt mutations remained steady.
This study uses population-representative samples to describe the changing landscape of SP resistance within the DRC, and the persistence of chloroquine resistance. Vigilant molecular surveillance is critical for controlling the spread of resistance.
While Legionella is a common cause of pneumonia, extrapulmonary infections like arthritis are scarce. Here, we describe a case of monoarthritis due to Legionella bozemanii, with no history of pneumonia. We provide a literature review of the 9 previously published Legionella arthritis and highlight a dichotomous epidemiology suggesting different physiopathological pathways leading to joint infection.
A 56-year old woman under immunosuppressive treatment by oral and intra-articular corticosteroids, methotrexate, and tocilizumab for an anti-synthetase syndrome was hospitalized for worsening pain and swelling of the left wrist for 3 days. Clinical examination showed left wrist synovitis and no fever. The arthritis occurred a few days after an accidental fall on wet asphalt responsible for a cutaneous wound followed by a corticosteroid intra-articular injection. Due to both the negativity of conventional culture of articular fluid and suspicion of infection, 16S rRNA and specific PCRs were performed leading to the identification of L. bozemanii. Legionella-specific culture of the articular fluid was performed retrospectively and isolated L. bozemanii. The empiric antibiotic therapy was switched for oral levofloxacin and rifampin and the patient recovered after a 12-week treatment.
We report a case of L. bozemanii monoarthritis in an immunosuppressed woman, following a fall on wet asphalt and intra-articular corticosteroid injection. The review of the literature found that the clinical presentation reveals the mode of infection and the bacterial species. Monoarthritis more likely occurred after inoculation in patients under immunosuppressive therapy and were associated with non-Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) strains that predominate in the environment. Polyarthritis were more likely secondary legionellosis localizations after blood spread of Lp1, the most frequently found in pneumonia. In both settings, 16S rRNA and Legionella-specific PCR were key factors for the diagnosis.
The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the value of real-time ultrasound elastography (RTE) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis (LF) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), to correlate the elastography findings with the histologic stage of LF and to compare RTE findings with those from noninvasive tests of LF calculated using laboratory blood parameters.
Liver biopsies, laboratory blood testing, and RTE were performed in 91 patients with CHB. The LF index (LFI) was calculated using a multiple linear regression equation involving 11 parameters, which represented the degree of LF. The higher the LFI is, the greater the degree of LF.
The mean aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and the mean fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4) were significantly different for the 5 stages of LF, respectively. The APRI (r = 0.43, P = 0.006), FIB-4 (r = 0.51, P = 0.012) and LFI (r = 0.562, P = 0.004) were correlated with the stages of LF. For discriminating stage F0 from F1, only the LFI had significant power (P = 0.026) for predicting stage F1. For discriminating stage F4 from F3, only the LFI had statistically significant power (P = 0.024) in predicting stage F4. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of the LFI for diagnosing significant, advanced LF and liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than those of the APRI and FIB-4, and the LFI had better sensitivity and specificity.
The LFI calculated by RTE is reliable for the assessment of LF in patients with CHB and has better discrimination power than the APRI and FIB-4.
congenital CMVCMV hyperimmune globulinplacentaCMV vaccinesCMV glycoproteins
Rome B, Kesselheim A.
AbstractBackgroundTo address the growing threat of multidrug resistant organisms, policymakers are seeking ideas to promote development of novel antibiotics. In 2018, the REVAMP Act was proposed in Congress to reward manufacturers of certain novel antibiotics with transferrable market exclusivity vouchers.MethodsWe estimated the economic impact of this proposal by identifying antimicrobial drugs approved by the FDA from 2007 – 2016 that would likely have qualified for an exclusivity voucher and matching each drug to the highest-revenue fast-track drug facing generic entry within 4 years after the antibiotic was approved. Assuming a spending decrease of 75% after generic entry, we calculated the per-drug and total societal costs of these transferrable market exclusivity extensions over a decade.ResultsWe identified 10 antimicrobials that would have qualified for an exclusivity voucher, each of which was matched with one of 17 fast-track drugs facing generic entry through July 2019. These 10 drugs had a median annual revenue prior to generic entry of $249 million (range: $26 million - $2.7 billion). Accounting for a 75% spending reduction after generic entry, the median excess spending associated with 12 months of extended exclusivity was $187 million, for a total of $4.5 billion over 10 years.ConclusionsWhile market exclusivity extensions are a politically appealing mechanism to encourage novel antibiotic development, this approach would cost public and private payers billions of dollars over the next decade.
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Lumbalpunktur af patienter i blodfortyndende behandling (2019)
Outbreak of macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae in a primary school in Beijing, China in 2018
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Acute liver failure due to visceral leishmaniasis in Barcelona: a case report
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus in liver disease patients in Botswana: a retrospective cross-sectional study
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Clinical outcomes among hospital patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Correction to: Rapid development of HIV elite control in a patient with acute infection
22.10.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
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Hvad tænker Professor Thomas Benfield om"Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial."?
Hvad synes Professor Morten Sodemann om"Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees."?
Hvad synes Professor Niels Obel om"Use of statins and risk of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy."?
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